The line between a “cooperative,” a “bargaining association” and “collective bargaining” can be blurred. In the United States, for example, agricultural bargaining associations may, before the sale, take back the title of the products of the member farmers. They can create “pools” of products for sale and sales contracts are concluded between the association and the processor; See United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Farm Bargaining and Price Negotiations Cooperative Information Report No. 26 (1980) v. The collective agreement came into effect on July 1, 2017 and applies to all faculties not assessed. The C.B.A. determines the faculty that falls into this category. All unclassified faculties are members of the rate unit. Collective agreement 2. Restrictions on the agreement must be necessary to achieve efficiency gains; 2. limit the number of participating companies, so that the trading group covers only a relatively small market share; collective bargaining allows companies to use more effective forms of bargaining. Authorization is needed, not because it changes the way companies could potentially negotiate, but because it removes legal barriers to how companies actually negotiate.
 For a discussion on economies of scale, see Jeffrey R Church and Roger Ware, Industrial Organization: A Strategic Approach (McGraw-Hill, 2000) 54. The benefits that companies pool in negotiations with counterparties and who share transaction costs should be greater if the parties to the collective agreement are numerous and small, but manufacture similar products. For example, in her second reading speech on the introduction of tariff communications, the Minister of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts stated that “[d] it has already authorized collective bargaining, including agreements between chicken farmers, milk producers, sugarcane producers and small private hospitals”: Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate March 10, 2005, 130 (Helen Coonan). Collective bargaining by agricultural groups is common. Overall, the ACCC and the Tribunal should minimize the benefits of a group of members with significant differences in the costs and benefits of a bargaining group.  The benefits of collective bargaining will be more likely to be paid if the group has both a limited number of members and if the member companies are relatively similar.