There are ways to avoid a VER by a company. For example, the exporting country`s company can still build a production site in the country where exports are directed. In this way the company is no longer obliged to export goods and should not be linked to the country`s VER. A voluntary export restriction (VT) is a trade restriction on the amount of a product that an exporting country is allowed to export to another country. This limit is set by the exporting country itself. VERs first appeared in the 1930s and gained a lot of popularity in the 1980s, when Japan used one to limit car exports to the United States. In the context of voluntary export restriction (ER), this is a voluntary expansion of imports (VIE) that changes a country`s economic and trade policy to allow more imports by reducing tariffs or reducing quotas. COUNTRY is often part of trade agreements with another country or is the result of international pressure. VERs are often created because exporting countries prefer to impose their own restrictions rather than risk obtaining less favourable terms through tariffs or quotas. They have been used by major developed economies. They have been in use since the 1930s and are applied to a wide range of products, from textiles to footwear, steel and automotive. They became a popular form of protectionism in the 1980s. Voluntary export restrictions fall into the broad category of non-tariff barriers, such as quotas, sanctions taxes, embargoes and other restrictions.
As a general rule, VERs are the result of a request from the importing country to grant a protection premium to its domestic companies that manufacture competing products, while these agreements can also be concluded at the sectoral level. Causes losses for consumers and eliminates jobs in the local industry that buys the protected product. And by reducing countries` ability to produce based on comparative advantages, protectionism reduces incomes. The most notable example of VERs is that, in the 1980s, due to American pressure, Japan imposed a VER for its car exports to the United States. Subsequently, the VER granted the U.S. auto industry some protection against a wave of foreign competition. This relief was short-lived, however, as it eventually led to an increase in exports of japanese vehicles at higher prices and a spread of Japanese assembly plants in North America.